Create A Hyper-Profitable Affiliate Business From Scratch

The Wix website editor keeps things simple. Double-click text, and you can edit it right away, with formatting options in a pane right beside. Adding new items is easy too from the buttons on the left. The Add button opens a menu with options to add formatted text, icons, social media embeds, forms, and more. With the Add Apps and Start Blogging options, you can even add a store, blog, or third-party app to your page—which would be too much for a landing page, but might be a helpful way to grow your website over time.
Another company that match affiliates to merchants, Avant Link takes an extremely professional view of affiliate-merchant linking.  They only take on affiliates if such an affiliate can prove they have a succinct knowledge of the techniques used to drive visitors to their site, and only select merchants with premier, functioning web-stores with decent conversion rates.  This company deals with higher-end of internet marketing rather than seldom-visited blogs.
And that is the best part of this course, it is entirely practical, explained in videos by Aaron himself. So rather than just reading out tons of text out there, you get all the information in videos which helps in understanding in a much better way.Another essential aspect of this course is the “Big Niche Marketing” technique, which on its own is great to generate the free organic traffic from Google.Everything is explained step-by-step in this 9 part course. The 9 parts covered in this course are:1) Find Profitable Niches	

Autodesk is a world leader in 3D design, engineering, and entertainment software. Autodesk makes software for people who make things. If you’ve ever driven a high-performance car, admired a towering skyscraper, used a smartphone, or watched a great film, chances are you’ve experienced what millions of Autodesk customers are doing with our software.
The 7 BEST Affiliate Marketing Programs for Beginners (2019)

When beginning your affiliate marketing career, you’ll want to cultivate an audience that has very specific interests. This allows you to tailor your affiliate campaigns to that niche, increasing the likelihood that you’ll convert. By establishing yourself as an expert in one area instead of promoting a large array of products, you’ll be able to market to the people most likely to buy the product.
So how do you know what engages your audience? Because most affiliate programs already require you to have an active website or social media presence, the tools are right in front of you. WordPress, Instagram, Facebook, and more all offer free analytics that can help you determine which products you should invest the most time marketing. What affiliate product links are they clicking on the most? What products has the highest conversion rate? Take a look before you decide what to promote next.
In the BigCommerce affiliate program, you receive a 200% bounty per referral and $1,500 per Enterprise referral, with no cap on commissions. Plus, the more referrals you drive through the program, the higher your commission tier will go. BigCommerce uses an industry-leading 90-day cookie, so you will receive credit for up to three months for the referrals you generate. Also, there are no obligations or minimum commitments to join the program.
Secondly, you’ll also need to provide a way to get paid. Many affiliate programs pay via Paypal so it will be a necessity that you get a Paypal account. All you’ll need to share is your Paypal email address. Still, other programs will want to pay via direct deposit into a checking account. This is why it’s also a good idea to register for a free business checking account.
So combine a review site and something people everyone loves, like babies. Imagine all the confusion new parents have when they bring a new baby into the world. What do they do, what do they need, what is the best? BabyGearLab solves that by reviewing baby stuff and helping parents understand it and buy it. This site has been around since 2011 helping parents through the impossible decisions of what is best for your baby.
Next, research individual affiliate programs to compare their structures. You want to consider factors such as the size of the commission and how often the company pays affiliates. Make sure you also understand any rules they impose on members of their affiliate networks. Always remember that you're likely to make more money with affiliate marketing content that is similar to your own.

Paid advertising — this method requires an effective combination of ad copy, graphics, and a highly-clickable link.[30] Unlike more traditional affiliate marketing strategies, paid advertising (through pay-per-click ads) earn you money regardless of whether a reader buys the product or not. Services like Google's AdSense make this quick and easy for you, and can even supply you with an advertising code.[31]
Bitrix24 gives you unlimited free landing page hosting (bandwidth), meaning you can create as many landing pages as you want and drive as much traffic as you can without spending a dime. In addition to hosting your page with bitrix24.site domain, you can connect your own domain name. Hundreds of thousands of royalty-free images (courtesy of Unsplash) and a multitude of landing page templates are at your disposal too. Here's an example of landing page design created with Bitrix24.
The affiliate marketing industry is growing steadily. Statista reported that spending on affiliate marketing only in the U.S. is expected to rise to $8.2 billion by 2022. Thus there is definitely a space to grow and earn. And we believe that even more then we see examples of super-affiliates publicly sharings their income reports and telling their success stories.
Insurance comparison sites are fulfilling a need. People don’t want to spend hours looking for insurance, and they don’t find it fun. If you’ve ever found anyone who enjoys this kind of activity, they could possibly be a little crazy. Both Compare The Market and Gocompare.com have not only made the tedious process of finding a policy infinitely faster, they’ve also made it fun. (Think of the free meerkats and the Gocompare man you love to hate.)
On the other hand, they may need longer to think about it. Perhaps they’re waiting for payday, or they’re not quite sure yet whether they prefer the blue one that they also spotted while browsing around the advertiser’s site. They may go away and come back in a couple of weeks’ time, no longer able to resist the urge to blow their wages on a better board.
Why create a product review roundup? It’s a way to provide real value to your readers. In the last stage of the buying process, people have usually reviewed a number of products. Now they have to decide which one to pick among all the options. With this template, you can help them through the decision-making process by providing a review comparison.
Thank you for your message. I approve Clickbank 100%. Whilst there are some questionable products on there, there are other great products that you can promote. I also wrote a comprehensive Clickbank affiliate marketing guide here on my blog if you have not yet seen it. https://iamdawn-marie.com/clickbank-internet-marketing/. Hope it’s useful to you 🙂
Use Deep Links – these are pages on your affiliate’s website that AREN’T the homepage. For SiteGround’s hosting you could link to their speed technology page as an affiliate link. If you’re doing Amazon’s affiliate program, you just want to gather a list of products you will be recommending to readers, create an affiliate link for each one, and import them to the plugin.

This is a review site that focuses on high end shaving equipment to have a nice mix of lower end and higher end shavers for a nice variety. It’s a simple/clean website design with lots of photos to help people understand the variety. Each review is decently long, but nothing to rave about. What is impressive is each review has a good amount of comments that are answered by the website owner. That tells me that the owner is monitoring this site and probably adding new content. A site like this wouldn’t be too hard to maintain. I’m thinking, maybe they add a new blog post once a month.


Astra Starter Sites – WordPress themes most people are using. They look amazing, are mobile responsive, and are 1-click import. Just install WordPress in your hosting account, login to your WordPress dashboard, and download the Astra Starter Sites plugin. Pick a theme and import it in 1-click, then you’re ready to start customizing your blog! Very easy.
I read this title and expected an awesome community of runners sharing their glory stories of braving the snow and rain to log in miles. Instead I’m directed to a boring treadmill site. This site is about 5 pages and a couple of additional pages for reviews for treadmills. The reviews are the only pages with any kind of lengthy content and those are still only around 800 words. The main redeeming quality about this site, is they are focusing on high price items so even a single sale of a treadmill is a nice commission. This is another example of a website you could make in a weekend. It’s motivating though because you know you can do better, right?
Fully Customizable Platform. One of the major challenges in implementing affiliate marketing platforms is integrating it with your internal systems. With Tune’s fully customizable features, you can personalize your dashboard, build your own applications to run alongside theirs, as well as utilize a 2-way API functionality so you may work with third-party systems easily.

Have started to use the software for tracking referral and affiliate sales. I find their commitment and passion for their product and service to be of a very high standard. What I liked the most is that they are proactive in suggesting the areas where one may need help and are liberal in offering the same and following it through. I am sure to use the software on our other web properties as well.
Once you have a WarriorPlus Account, you’re able to browse their directory of vendors to find products you’d like to promote, or you can list your products.  The products all fall within the make money online and work from home niche, so I guess that’s why they don’t categorize the products like other networks. Rather than sorting products by relevance to your target audience, the WarriorPlus categorization is by:
Tracking your billable time should not get in the way of your billable time. Gone are the days of spreadsheets, sticky notes and pads of paper. Bill4Time’s software offers you 3 ways to access your account and track time. Access online, with your mobile phone or on the desktop widget. Once you enter and record your time, it’s organized and ready for invoicing.  Typical targeted referral partners include lawyers, litigation assistants, accountants, independent contractors, consultants, associations, blog writers, reviewers and more.	

Flexoffers.com is another well-known affiliate that we have included in our top best affiliate programs. This program is well-established affiliate marketer that has gained a lot of reputation because of offering big offers on digital products, keeping their affiliates relevant. When a company offers large offers, more clients are likely to purchase, meaning more money to the merchants and affiliates.

If you are interested in learning the process behind building a WordPress website then you should look at Learn how to Build High Quality Affiliate Websites. This will help you not just learn how to promote but also get you going with setting up the wordpress website and then promote relevant products. Andrew’s course is a Bestselling Course and we have no doubts why. The following pointers should help you make up your mind. Think of this program like going to affiliate marketing school.	

The thing is I have no insight on any program that can help me out with multi-niche products and accept me as new comer in the market. My current platform is WordPress so according to my rookie research, I’ll be needing CMS tools too I guess. I have been searching and came across a few programs like revglue which it sounds good and work for UK bloggers which is my case. Let me know what you think about this affiliate program.
A product box comes at the end of the template, which enables you to present a clear recommendation. This is the key element of the template. After introducing all the products, you need to highlight the “winner” that has it all. Otherwise, readers might get overwhelmed after reading all the detailed information, still not knowing which one to pick.

Travelpayouts calls themselves “The Ideal Travel Program to Monetize Your Travel Website”, and I have to agree. They cover a wide range of services and integrate other travel platforms like Booking.com, Airbnb, rentalcars.com, and more. Their travel affiliate marketing platform offers up to an 80% commission, but the average is 1.6% for flights and 6% for hotel bookings. Their cookie duration is 30 days.
Short answer - absolutely. I see no end in sight for making money with affiliate marketing because vendors know that they need affiliates to survive. To compare, it would be like a typical company with a product to sell that doesn't have a sales team. How could they possibly survive? Affiliate marketing is alive and well and will stay that way. If you're looking to get started right away, choose from any of my affiliate marketing courses that I have included on this page fully vetted by me.
Aim for quality over quantity. Having a vast network of affiliates will not necessarily help you earn more money. According to some experts, the key to successful affiliate marketing is to find the right affiliates that will drive the most results for your platform. Those affiliates may be big sites, small sites, or a combination of the two, but the most important thing is to build and maintain strong relationships with your chosen affiliates.[40]
This is one of the best CPA affiliate marketing networks where you can find over 2500 affiliate campaigns to use for converting your website traffic into leads and sales. The great thing about using AdWork Media is it offers a wide range of monetization tools such as Content Locker, Product Locker, Offer Wall etc to help you easily make money from your website traffic.
No matter where you decide to promote affiliate links, you should always do so with best practices in mind. This means providing valuable content first and foremost and only including affiliate links when it makes sense. It’s also a good idea to use affiliate links on occasion – not everything you create should be for the sole purpose of making a sale.	

CPAmatica is an affiliate network based in Kyiv, Ukraine, which operates throughout North and South America, Europe and Asia. Founded in 2015, it all began with a single person. Getting interested in affiliate marketing in early student years, Evgeniy Prima wanted to help others expand their businesses in a more smart way. Creating a new kind of network, innovative, simple and more human, he made a world-class environment in performance marketing.
Revenue Sharing Social Networks: The revenue sharing content model started with sites like HubPages, but have grown beyond just text-based-content since then to include Daily TwoCents, Techulator, Tsu, GetGems, BonzoMe, Bubblews, RedGage and Persona Paper. This model is not without controversy since many content contributors complain about constantly changing payment models, payments lower than expected and problems with late payments. Do your due diligence and read reviews and opinions from users.
Coursera's affiliate program runs on the Linkshare network and offers a commission ranging from 20% to 45% with bonuses for strong performance. Courses and Specializations are generally priced between $29 and $99. As a Coursera affiliate, you get access to professionally-designed banners and a monthly affiliate newsletter with curated content recommendations.
I basically write tutorials on website speed while saying “hosting is the #1 speed factor and Cloudways DigitalOcean was #1 in multiple speed tests and Facebook polls taken in the WordPress Hosting Facebook Group. Most people recommend them (even WordPress) and they do free migrations. People who move to Cloudways usually see much faster load times. I use Cloudways and you can view my GTmetrix report: the proof is in the pudding my friends.”	

They have a long history of reducing commissions and writing content that competes with affiliates (and most people go directly to Amazon). I don’t recommend being an affiliate for any monopoly. You could very well end up getting trampled on, like most Amazon affiliates have. However, if you get lots of views, many affiliates are making “how to do something” YouTube videos and listing their equipment in the video description. A million views can make it worth it.	

A more complex system, pay per lead affiliate programs compensates the affiliate based on the conversion of leads. The affiliate must persuade the consumer to visit the merchant’s website and complete the desired action — whether it’s filling out a contact form, signing up for a trial of a product, subscribing to a newsletter, or downloading software or files.
Impact is the global leader in Partnership Automation and catalyst for the new Partnership Economy. Impact accelerates enterprise growth by scaling discovery, recruitment, onboarding, engagement and optimization of all partnerships types including affiliates, influencers, mobile apps, strategic, and more. Impacts Partnership CloudTM provides automation for the full partnership lifecycle; confident decision making and optimization through measurement and attribution; and protection from fraud. Learn more about Impact Partnership Cloud
Directly integrate affiliate payments to systems such as LinkTrust, HasOffers, HitPath, and CAKE. Tipalti powers mass payments to global affiliates and automates the entire process - from white-labeled affiliate onboarding to payment method & currency selection, global remittance, early payments, payment status communications, payment reconciliation, and tax preparation reports. See why companies like GoDaddy, MaxBounty, and GlobalWide Media trust Tipalti for their affiliate payment operations. Learn more about Affiliate Payment Automation	

No, there is no install version because what we have to offer you in our hosted solution is better. We can set up FTP access for your business so that you can make changes to any files. However, in most cases, it is not necessary because you can integrate with any shopping cart or gateway without needing FTP and use our easy to use wizard. You can also use your domain name for the administrative and user area. Also, we take care of upgrades and security so you can have peace of mind and focus on growing your business.
Like the rest of the tools you’ll read about today, Instapage allows you to work with either a premade template best suited for your needs or opt for a blank canvas. On top of that, the editor can automatically match elements to the selected color-scheme, so you don’t have to struggle with the design too much. The price starts at $149/mo for an annual subscription.	

Now, truth be told, affiliate marketing does come with some costs. Fortunately, those costs are rather small when compared to starting other businesses. For example, if you want to succeed with affiliate marketing in the same way that I teach it, you’ll need a website. In order to have a website, you need to pay for “website hosting”. If you don’t know what website hosting is, don’t worry, we’ll get to that, but website hosting does cost a few bucks per month (generally under $10 / mo). If you have about $40 for startup costs and about $10 / mo for recurring expenses, this is entirely doable. There are many other optional expenses for affiliate marketing, which I will also get into, but those optional expenses are used more for speeding up the path to success (outsourcing, etc.) rather than a requirement for success. When I first started my affiliate marketing business, I had about $200 to my name.
Great post and right on target. I found that if you blog and/or do videos that sharing little stories will help connect you to potential leads. I do how-to videos and posts and I always tell personal stories or my own experiences that relate to the subject. It works and I get personal messages from people about it. It makes you more real and down to earth in the viewer's eyes. Once they like you and trust you they will become a lead and hopefully a sale. They may very well become a regular buyer because you will be their go to person. For best results it's best to blog daily and do at least one video a day.
SiteSell.com, SBI! for WP, Brainstorm It!, Make Your Site Sell!, MYSS!, Make Your Knowledge Sell! MYKS!, Make Your Price Sell!, MYPS!, Make Your Words Sell!, MYWS!, Site Build It!, Solo Build It!, SBI!, SBI! 2.0, SBI! 3.0, BlockBuilder 2, BB2, Make Your Net Auction Sell!, MYNAS!, Make Your Content PREsell!, MYCPS!, Make Your Links Work!, MYLW!, 5 Pillar Affiliate Program, SiteSell Affiliate Program, SiteSell Professionals, SiteSell Services, SBI! Coaching, and SiteSell Education are trademarks or trade names of SiteSell Inc.

PepperJam wants to do things differently. Publishers and advertisers can directly communicate with affiliates being potentially offered personalized incentives. They have strong brands like Nordstrum, Retailmenot and Shutterfly. You can create a deep link for any advertiser using the Pepperjam Link Generator,. The Link Generator is attached to your bookmark bar on your web browser.
Secondly, you’ll also need to provide a way to get paid. Many affiliate programs pay via Paypal so it will be a necessity that you get a Paypal account. All you’ll need to share is your Paypal email address. Still, other programs will want to pay via direct deposit into a checking account. This is why it’s also a good idea to register for a free business checking account.

Impact is the global leader in Partnership Automation and catalyst for the new Partnership Economy. Impact accelerates enterprise growth by scaling discovery, recruitment, onboarding, engagement and optimization of all partnerships types including affiliates, influencers, mobile apps, strategic, and more. Impacts Partnership CloudTM provides automation for the full partnership lifecycle; confident decision making and optimization through measurement and attribution; and protection from fraud. Learn more about Impact Partnership Cloud


This is not a course, but a website about building authority sites which can generate all organic traffic from Google. Chris Lee, the founder of this website, details excellent tips to build your site and generate free traffic from Google using SEO. And quality traffic matters a lot in Affiliate marketing, which Chris explains, how to generate.I would personally recommend following his tips as they are practical and effective to generate free traffic to your website.
A product box comes at the end of the template, which enables you to present a clear recommendation. This is the key element of the template. After introducing all the products, you need to highlight the “winner” that has it all. Otherwise, readers might get overwhelmed after reading all the detailed information, still not knowing which one to pick.

Sell any product on Amazon directly through your Pinterest pins. If you’re in the US, you will need to have a website or blog to get approved. You can earn up to 10% on over one million products. They also help you post links and promote products on your site with banners. While they’re not a network per se, they provide a massive range of products.
Affiliate Marketing Tutorial For Beginners 2020 (Step by Step)

Impact – ADP, Airbnb, AppSumo, Allstate, 1-800 Flowers, Avon, Constant Contact, Credit Karma Tax, Envato Market, ESPN+, Getty Images, Gravity Forms, Grubhub, Houzz, HostGator, InMotion, iQ, iStock, Kind, Kohl’s, Lending Club, Levi’s, LinkedIn Learning, Namecheap, Shutterstock, Southwest, Squarespace, StackPath CDN, Target, Turo, Uber, Uber Eats, Xfinity, more.
LinkConnector was ranked among the top 10 affiliate networks by mThink. I am not sure why it is not better known but they are a strong program with great merchants. They have a very strong and active affiliate management team that wants to help you succeed. One cool feature is naked linking. This allows for links with no obvious affiliate suffix. This helps with conversions. They support many performance marketing models including Pay Per Call, Pay Per Go, Pay Per Lead and Pay Per Click. Coupons are supported with tools to prevent coupon hijacking.
Affiliates will claim a $5 commission just for signing up for our affiliate program. It is always paid out in their first payout of earned commissions. They can earn a 20% commission from the initial payment and also a 20% commission of all recurring payments. The average conversion is 1:66. Commissions are computed from 92% of the total order amount because there is an 8% average fixed cost from every transaction. LiveAgent also provides you plenty of various affiliate links, banners, tips, and content materials. Payouts are made every month on the 15th and the minimum payout is $100.
Warrior Plus and its vendors are big scammers. I bought a product called a stream store. Implemented what is shown in the video and mine was not functioning the way is been shown in the video. I logged into warrior plus, click on product support and send him a message on Friday 06/09/2019 didn’t get a response so I decided to wait till Monday since it is weekend. Finally, it was Monday I sent another message to both warrior plus and the vendor via email and Facebook chat which was ignored cos it showed warrior plus read it and vendor on warrior plus was active 5 minutes ago.	

Thirsty Affiliates tracks, cloaks, and categorizes your affiliate links. Once you’ve signed up for your program(s) grab your affiliate links and add them to this plugin. This can take time if you will be linking to multiple pages on your affiliate’s website (which in many cases, you should). The pro version comes with statistics but I don’t even use it and I’m quite the analytical person.
Review : I’m really happy that I bought this course. This was so informative and had really good explanations. I loved how she walked us through setting up our blog step by step which really helped me and also motivated me to get it done. It made starting my blog less overwhelming for me to see her steps on Word Press. She was very thorough and I feel a lot better about it now. She even is responsive on the Facebook group. Would definitely recommend this course! If anything could be changed, I would just want to see even more steps on the word press side as far as physically setting things up. Thanks for a great course Theo! – Jamie Banks
Hi my name is prince and I am interested in affiliate program but I already registered with an affiliate company called markethealth.com. do I continue with by marketing their products online and thereby generating profits?..secondly am still not clear on how I can generate traffic to my Twitter account while affiliating for markethealth.com..thankyou..awaiting your reply
The easiest and most common way to start building an audience for a website is via social media. Depending on your niche and industry, you can choose from Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest and several other niche and location-specific networks. Building up an engaged and interested following on social media is a great opportunity to build relationships and once you have their trust, promote your products and services to them. 
ArabClicks which is headquartered in Dubai, enables GCC/MENA advertisers to maximize their audience and potential growth while empowering regional publishers to monetize their platforms and spheres of influence. A fully bilingual network, ArabClicks delivers fast, professional account management, training and support in Arabic & English. What’s more, ArabClicks has launched a line of simple, smart hi-tech solutions to skyrocket affiliates’ earning potential, with less effort. Add this to the best commissions in the industry, and the choice is clear for Middle Eastern advertisers and affiliates.
Make Money from Google with NO WEBSITE? [Affiliate Marketing 2020 Hack]

I was able to completely customize the software to appear where I wanted it in the website and incorporate an approval process for applicants. There is an option for pretty much everything - which is great. The only drawback is that because of the many options and settings, it was sometimes confusing and I needed assistance setting up. Luckily, Arlen and the rest of the support team are quick to respond and extremely helpful. Arlen went above and beyond to help me integrate the software into our website and was very patient to explain terms and features I didn't quite understand yet. I would definitely recommend OSI Affiliates! Thank you guys!!!
I basically write tutorials on website speed while saying “hosting is the #1 speed factor and Cloudways DigitalOcean was #1 in multiple speed tests and Facebook polls taken in the WordPress Hosting Facebook Group. Most people recommend them (even WordPress) and they do free migrations. People who move to Cloudways usually see much faster load times. I use Cloudways and you can view my GTmetrix report: the proof is in the pudding my friends.”

AdsBridge is a premium self-hosted tracker and TDS system for affiliate marketing. It helps to track the success of advertising campaigns and optimize them to achieve better results. Highly effective AI traffic distribution system detects the most profitable offers and sends traffic there. Among the top features of AdsBridge are: - tracking without redirects for tracking campaigns from Facebook and AdWords; - free SSL certificates for domains bought via AdsBridge and the option to add your own domains with SSL; - traffic monetization (to monetize your traffic in one click); - push-notifications for landing pages (to collect subscribers and monetize them later); - SmartOffers (if you don't know which offers from affiliate networks to choose). AdsBridge has a sensitive bot filter, landing page editor with templates and HTML access, auto-optimization of paths and rules, split-testing, and detailed statistics. Support Team answers any questions and helps with settings.


Affiliate networks are intermediaries between merchants that sell products and affiliates that promote them. Joining one benefits merchants and affiliates alike. Affiliate networks allow publishers the ability to search through merchants (advertisers) and join them in one place. Furthermore, they allow merchants to reach a larger audience and promote them to all affiliates in the network.
Sage Financials, a cloud accounting solution built on Salesforce that provides accounting, analytics, and reporting tools for small and mid-sized businesses, has an impressive affiliate program that includes a dedicated support team, commission paid directly into your bank account (and currency of choice), and detailed reporting on your performance and earnings.
Directly integrate affiliate payments to systems such as LinkTrust, HasOffers, HitPath, and CAKE. Tipalti powers mass payments to global affiliates and automates the entire process - from white-labeled affiliate onboarding to payment method & currency selection, global remittance, early payments, payment status communications, payment reconciliation, and tax preparation reports. See why companies like GoDaddy, MaxBounty, and GlobalWide Media trust Tipalti for their affiliate payment operations. Learn more about Affiliate Payment Automation
As for your question about which affiliate program to join, I cannot give you an answer for that because that’s totally depends on the niche you’re in. I’m not familiar with your niche so I can’t give you any recommendation for that. That’s for individual private affiliate programs. You can also check out the common affiliate networks like Amazon, ClickBank, Shareasale, CJ, all these.	

Know the legal requirements. Most visitors will probably understand that advertisements lead to your personal compensation, but if you write a review or use an in-text link as a recommendation, you must explicitly state that each purchase using that link can generate revenue for you. This isn't just good business: it's also required by law. If you don't disclose affiliate or revenue-generating links, you could face legal and financial penalties.
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